Why Formative Assessment Makes You Learn Faster

Recent studies in education highlights the impact of formative assessment on students’ learning.

Formative assessment is “a process that takes place continuously during the course of teaching and learning to provide teachers and students with feedback to close the gap between current learning and desired goals” (Heritage, 2010, p. 10).

When implemented in teaching, it begins when the learner and teacher understands the target of the learning. The present performance of the student is determined in relation to the goal. The students and  teacher then take action to move the learner closer towards the goal bringing about progress in their learning. Continue reading “Why Formative Assessment Makes You Learn Faster”

Let your children play outside the classroom

This is a repost from David Evans

Every year, a child lives 8,760 hours (that’s 24 hours times 365 days). Let’s say she sleeps 9 hours a night. That leaves 5,475 hours awake. How many of those does she spend in school?

Official compulsory instructional time for primary school ranges from under 600 hours (Russia) to nearly 1,200 hours (Costa Rica) in the OECD database. Actual days may be significantly fewer with school closures and teacher absenteeism. In many low- and middle-income countries, school days are at the low end of that due to short school days. That means that only between 10 and 20 percent of children’s waking hours are spent in school [1].

At the same time, the World Development Report 2018 argues convincingly that there is a global learning crisis, with too many children failing to learn foundational skills – like functional reading – in school [2]. Clearly there is a need to improve the quality of schooling. But at the same time, why not leverage those other 80 to 90 percent of waking hours?

One way that parents try to use those extra hours is by paying for out-of-school tutoring. This is prevalent in many countries. But because parents pay for private tutoring, it creates a particular burden on the poorest children and their families. And some evidence suggests that it may create disincentives to teach during the school day (since teachers themselves are often tutors), as in Jayachandran (2014).

Save the Children has developed an approach – “life-wide learning” – which seeks to leverage those extra hours with out-of-school literacy activities. The program is called Literacy Boost. Friedlander and Goldenberg (2016) recently published the  results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of Literacy Boost in Rwanda, focusing on the early grades of primary education. In the past, Dowd et al. have published non-experimental analysis showing sizeable gains of LB participants relative to comparators in various countries.

Literacy Boost has two main components: teacher training, including training in formative assessment (let’s improve the quality of the time that children are in school) and community action (let’s make literacy activities accessible outside of school). The RCT assigns some students to just the teacher training (TT), others to teacher training plus community action (TT+CA), and others continue with business-as-usual schooling.

What do you mean by teacher training?

The teacher training consists of 6-9 sessions over the course of the school year, carried out on Saturdays or Sundays. The sessions covered topics like “Vocabulary” and “Effective use and management of storybooks in the classroom. Teachers received a travel allowance for participating, since the training took place at one school within a cluster. Literacy Boost would visit teachers in their schools between sessions to help them implement what they had learned, and each training session began with a period of reflection in which teachers brought up challenges they faced since the last session. Training that includes these elements of repeated training combined with coaching has the best chance of success, according to synthesis work that I’ve done in the past (with Popova and Arancibia).

What are these community activities?

Paid community facilitators working with a local NGO (Umuhuza) provided families of students with a 7-session training on “reading awareness,” which includes encouragement and guidance on reading together as well as stimulating oral language skills. They invited volunteers to run Reading Clubs, where children came together read storybooks aloud and play word games. They also organized Reading Buddies, pairing up a competent reader with a struggling reader and letting them borrow books to read together. (This didn’t work so well when organized through schools, since buddies might not live together, so they later revised it to be organized through the Reading Clubs.) The facilitators also put together Reading Festivals, where Reading Clubs would practice reading storybooks and then compete. A donor-funded project provided age-appropriate storybooks.

So, what did Literacy Boost do?

Both the TT and the TT+CA improved reading skills, and TT+CA improved reading by more than TT alone.

Source: Friedlander and Goldenberg (2016)

But it’s still not enough: by the end of the study, more than 30 percent of participating students still didn’t pass a basic literacy threshold. This may not be surprising given that just 20 percent of households participated in the workshops (and only one-third reported being aware of the workshops). Classrooms in both TT and TT+CA sectors had more print materials on their walls. Teachers in those schools scored higher on evaluations of their knowledge, belief, and practices about reading instruction.

Source: Friedlander and Goldenberg (2016)

Students in the TT+CA group had more reading habits and interactions, more reading materials, and more child interest and engagement in reading.

Take away

Literacy Boost hits on the crucial point that children spend relatively little of their time in school, and so if we really care about literacy, it makes sense to leverage those additional hours. The program improves children’s literacy. Whether it’s a cost effective package of interventions relative to other interventions, however, remains to be researched.

Source: https://blogs.worldbank.org/impactevaluations/how-leverage-time-children-spend-out-school-learning